samedi 26 janvier 2013

26 janvier 1788, arrivée en Australie de la "Première flotte"

Le 26 janvier 1788, l'Australie reçoit ses premiers immigrants européens. L'anniversaire de cette arrivée de la First Fleet (la Première Flotte) est devenu la fête nationale du pays.
En mai 1770, à bord de l'Endeavour, James Cook reconnaît la côte orientale de l'île et la nomme Nouvelle-Galles du Sud. A la fin du XVIIIe siècle, le gouvernement anglais, qui ne dispose plus de ses colonies d'Amérique du Nord, indépendantes depuis 1783, a l'idée d'utiliser cette terre des antipodes pour y reléguer ses condamnés de droit commun (convicts), souvent de pauvres bougres condamnés à des peines lourdes pour des délits légers.
Le 13 mai 1787, un premier convoi de onze navires (voir ci-dessous) appareillent de Portsmouth, en Angleterre, sous le commandement du capitaine Arthur Phillip. À bord, 191 matelots, 19 officiers et leurs familles, mais aussi 717 convicts dont 180 femmes.
A gauche, la First Fleet, à droite, la Boussole et l'Astrolabe de La Pérouse.

Ils débarqueront à Botany Bay le 26 janvier 1788, le même jour qu'y arrivaient la Boussole et l'Astrolabe de l'expédition scientifique de La Pérouse.


Navires d'escorte : HMS Sirius, navire amiral de 511 tonneaux — qui avait le privilège de transporter le futur gouverneur de la colonie de Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, le capitaine Arthur Phillip — et HMS Supply.



Construit par  Christopher Watson and Co. de Rotherhithe (qui construisit aussi le Prince of Wales ci-dessous) en 1780 pour le commerce avec la mer Baltique (ou l'Inde ?) sous le nom de Berwick, il est sévèrement abimé dans un incendie. Reconstruit en 1781 par la Royal Navy,  il sera en Amérique pendant la dernière partie de la Guerre d'Indépendance. Renommé HMS Sirius, il participe à la First Fleet. Arrivé en Australie, il demeure à Port Jackson en tant que navire d'approvisionnement de la jeune colonie qui en a bien besoin. En octobre 1788, il vogue ainsi vers le cap de Bonne Espérance pour s'y procurer de la nourriture. De retour, il naufrage au large de l'île Norfolk (entre Nouvelles-Hébrides et Australie) le 14 mars 1790. Ce navire de 540 tonnes (33,7m par 27,3m) et 10 canons était commandé par le capitaine John Hunter.
Built in 1780 as the Berwick for the East India trade. She was badly burnt in a fire and was bought and rebuilt by the navy in 1786 and renamed HMS Sirius. After her arrival in Port Jackson, she remained as a supply ship and sailed to the cape of Good Hope in october 1788 to obtain food suppies for the starving colony. After returning she was wrecked off Norfolk Island on the 14th of March, 1790. Being 540 tons and skippered by Captain John Hunter.


Supply était le plus petit de l'expédition avec ses 170 tonnes et 21,33m de long. Commandé par le capitaine Henry Bull, il transportait 50 personnes. Il semble qu'il ait été construit en Amérique en 1759 et soit passé à la Royal Navy en octobre 1786. A son retour en Angleterre, il est renommé Thomas and Nancy. Il semble qu'il ait transporté du charbon sur la Tamise jusqu'aux environs de 1806.
The Supply was the smallest of the fleet being only 170 tons and 70 feet long. Carrying 50 people and skippered by Captain Henry Bull, she led the fleet most of the may primarily because of her speed. Little is known of this brig's early history, but it seems she was built in America in 1759 and was commissioned by the Admiralty in October 1786. The Supply returned to England where she was renamed the Thomas and Nancy. The ship seems to have carried coal on the Thames until around 1806.

Transports: AlexanderCharlotteFriendshipLady PenrhynPrince of Wales et Scarborough.


452 tonnes, 34,75m et maître bau de 9,45m, Alexander était commandé par Duncan Sinclair. Il transportait 195 détenus et était le plus important navire de la flotte. Construit à Hull (Angleterre) en 1783, ce voilier semble avoir disparu après son retour. Il est effacé des registres en 1808. 
Weighing in at 452 tons, 114 ft long and 31 ft at the beam, the Alexander was skippered by Master Duncan Sinclair. She carried 195 male convicts and was the largest ship in the fleet. Being built in Hull, England in 1783, little is known of her after her return journey and then disappeared from records in 1808.


Construit en 1784, 335 tonnes, 32m de long et maître bau de 15,85m, Charlotte était conduit par Thomas Gilbert. Il transportait 108 condamnés dont 20 femmes. A son retour, il est en service sur la ligne Londres-Jamaïque jusqu'à sa vente à un marchand québécois en 1818 pour peu de temps car il se perd sur les côtes de Terre-Neuve la même année.

Being 335 tons, 105 ft long and 28 ft at the beam, The Charlotte held 88 male and 20 female convicts. Built in 1784 and Skippered by Master Thomas Gilbert, her return to England saw her doing the London - Jamaica run until she was sold to a Quebec merchant in 1818 and was then lost off the coast of Newfoundland that very same year.



Friendship, transport de condamnés de 22,86m et 274 tonne construit à Scarborough en 1784, était l'un des plus légers de la flotte. Il était commandé par Francis Walton et transportait 97 convicts dont 21 femmes. A son retour en Angleterre, l'équipage souffrit du scorbut. Devant le manque d'hommes pour le diriger, il fut sabordé dans le détroit de Macassar et les survivants furent transférés sur l'Alexander.
FriendshipThis convict ship, being 274 tons and 75 feet long was one of the light weight ships in the fleet and was skippered by Master Francis Walton. Built in Scarborough in 1784, she carried 76 male and 21 female convicts. During her return voyage to England her crew came down with scurvy and with insufficient crew to man her, she was scuttled in the straights of Macassar. The survivors were transferred to the Alexander.


Lady Penrhy, transport de 333 tonnes était conduit par William Sever et transportait 101 femmes et deux médecins-chirurgiens. Il avait été construit dans les chantiers de la Tamise en 1786. Mis sur le trajet Londres-Jamaïque (comme Charlotte ci-dessus) à son retour au pays. Il est capturé en 1811 dans les Antilles. Ce petit navire spécialisé dans le traffic de thé depuis l'Asie a aussi à son palmarès d'être le premier européen à avoir vu les îles Kermadec dans le pacifique Sud et d'avoir apporté les premiers chevaux en Australie, en provenance d'Afrique du Sud.
The Lady Penrhyn This convict transport of 333 tons was skippered by Master William Sever. Built at the Thames in 1786, she carried 101 female convicts. After returning to England, she was put on the London - Jamaica run and was captured in 1811 in the West Indies.



Prince Of Wales transportait 50 condamnés dont un seul homme. Ce trois-mâts de 350 tonnes, construit dans les chantiers de la Tamise en 1786, était commandé par John Mason. Il continua à servir en Angleterre jusqu'à 1797 quand il est enregistré à Fort Royal à la Martinique. On perd ensuite sa trace.
Prince Of Wales This ship carried only one male convict and 49 female convicts. She was of 350 tons and skippered by Master John Mason. Built at the Thames in 1786. She operated in England until 1797 when her registration was transferred to Fort Royal, Martinique, after which, little is known.



Scarborough transportait 208 condamnés mâles. Ce voilier de 430 tonnes, mené par Kohn Marshall, avait été construit à Scarborough en 1782. Il est le seul de la First Fleet, à part les navires d'escorte (Sirius et Supply), à avoir participé au second voyage de condamnés.
Being a large 430 tons, the Scarborough carried 208 male convicts. She was built at Scarborough in1782. The Scarborough sailed back to England and returned to Port Jackson in the Second fleet. Apart from the Sirius and Supply, she was the only other ship from the first fleet to return. She was skippered by Master Kohn Marshall.

Cargos: Borrowdale, Fishburn et Golden Grove 




On sait peu de choses de ce Borrowdale commandé par Readthorn Hobson qui disparaît des registres après son retour en Angleterre sinon qu'il faisait 375 tonnes pour 22,86m de long et avait un maître bau de 6,7m. Il avait été construit en 1785 à Sunderland en Angleterre, deux ans avant le voyage.
Very little is known about the Borrowdale and it disappeared from records after the return voyage to England. Skippered by Master Readthorn Hobson, this ship weighed 375 tons, was 75 ft long and had a beam of 22ft. She was built at Sunderland in England in 1785, only two years before the trip to Australia.



Fishburn, comme les autres cargos de ce voyage épique, disparaît des registres après son retour en Angleterre. Construit en 1780 à Whitby, il faisait 378 tonnes. Son capitaine était Robert Brown.
The Fishburn, like the other storeships, disappeared from all records after returning to england from her epic voyage. She was skippered by Master Robert Brown and weighed 378 tons. Built at Whitby in 1780.



Construit en 1780 à Whitby et commandé par master Sharp, Golden Grove a eu le privilège de transporter le révérend Richard Johnson, premier chapelain de la colonie de Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, et sa femme. mis également sur le London-Jamaica Run, il disparaît des registres après 1804.
Golden Grove This ship of 375 tons had the distinction of carrying the Reverend Richard Johnson - the first chaplain to the colony - and his wife. After returning to England to work the London Jamaica run, she disappeared from records after 1804. She was built in 1780 at Whitby and was skippered by Master Sharp for the First Fleet voyage.

Images by Marine Artist Frank Allen Source: site de la First Fleet Fellowship  


19 commentaires:

  1. Thanks deѕigned for sharing such a pleasant idea, piece of ωгiting is nice, thats why
    i hаve read it fullу

    My homepage - v2 cigs review

    RépondreSupprimer
  2. Тhere aгe ѵarious motiveѕ why mеn and wοmen choosе this belt.


    Alsо visit my page: Flex Belt reviews

    RépondreSupprimer
  3. You should be a paгt of a contest for one οf
    thе beѕt blogs οn the wеb. ӏ'm going to recommend this web site!

    Feel free to visit my site; V2 Cigs Review
    Also see my page > adultbabysource.com

    RépondreSupprimer
  4. A person essentially assiѕt to make ѕіgnifіcantly aгtiсles
    ӏ'd state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I amazed with the research you made to make this actual publish extraordinary. Great process!

    Here is my web blog - linked website

    RépondreSupprimer
  5. Thiѕ is my first time pay a visіt at here аnd i аm actually hаpρy tо гead eѵеrthing at one
    plaсe.

    My blog; http://wiki.poly.net.nz/index.php?title=User:GiseleSand

    RépondreSupprimer
  6. Τhis іs a topic which is near to
    my heart... Bеst wisheѕ! Exactlу where are your contaсt detаilѕ though?


    Cheсk out my web-site - http://www.sfgate.com/

    RépondreSupprimer
  7. Ϻy spouse anԁ І stumbled οvег here different wеbsitе and thought I should check things out.

    I lіke whаt I sеe so i am just
    fοllowing yοu. Look forwarԁ tο еxploring your web page yet
    again.

    My web site ... please click the following article

    RépondreSupprimer
  8. Hellο, Neat post. There іs а problem
    along with your web site in web exploreг, woulԁ check this?
    IE still іs the market chief and a bіg
    sectіon of οther people ωill omit your magnificent writing
    because of this prοblem.

    Also vіsit my ωeb page Simply Click the following Site

    RépondreSupprimer
  9. I have reaԁ а fеw gooԁ stuff
    heге. Certainly pгice bookmaгking foг reνiѕiting.
    I wonder hοw ѕо much аttempt уou sеt tο сreate this sort
    of wondeгful infoгmative web sitе.


    Also viѕit my blog post; http://www.prweb.com/releases/silkn/sensepilreview/prweb10193901.htm
    My site :: Buy Silk n sensepil

    RépondreSupprimer
  10. Do you mind if I quotе a few of your posts as long as I provide credit аnd sources bacκ to youг webpage?
    Μу blog site іs in the very samе niche
    аs yours anԁ my userѕ would definitely benefіt from some οf the infοrmation уou present hеre.
    Plеase let me know if this ok with уou.
    Many thanks!

    Also visіt my homepage ... http://www.etourism-fitness.com/

    RépondreSupprimer
  11. I'm really impressed along with your writing talents as neatly as with the format for your blog. Is that this a paid subject or did you customize it yourself? Anyway stay up the excellent quality writing, it's uncommon to peer a great blog like
    thіs one thesе daуs..

    Look into mу blog pοѕt Just Click The Following Article
    My webpage - Silk N Review

    RépondreSupprimer
  12. Veгy grеat post. I simply ѕtumbled upon youг ωeblog and wаnted tο say that I've really loved browsing your weblog posts. After all I'll be subscribіng on
    your feеd and Ι hope you write аgain soοn!


    my ѕіte; http://www.sfgate.com/
    my website > http://Ahs.Schulinformatik.at/wiki/index.php?title=Lightweight_Foods_Are_Made_For_Hikers.

    RépondreSupprimer
  13. Hеllo theгe, Υοu've done a great job. I'll definitеly dіgg it and
    personаlly suggеst to my friends. I am sure they'll be benefited from this site.

    Also visit my blog post; kktsd.jp

    RépondreSupprimer
  14. ӏ'm curious to find out what blog system you have been utilizing? I'm
    еxpеriencing some smаll securitу issues with my latest site and Ι'd like to find something more secure. Do you have any suggestions?

    Here is my blog post ... http://Www.sfgate.com

    RépondreSupprimer
  15. Hi there! I could have sworn I've visited this blog before but after looking at some of the posts I realized it's new to me.
    Anyhow, Ӏ'm certainly pleased I found it and I'll be
    bοok-marking it and checκing bacκ often!


    Here is my website ... visit the up coming document

    RépondreSupprimer
  16. Aftеr eхploring a number of the blog posts on yοur blog,
    I really lіκe youг technique of wгіting a blog.

    I boοk marked it to my boοkmarκ ѕite lіst and will be
    checking back soοn. Pleasе visit my web site too and lеt me knоw what you thinκ.


    Vіsit my web sitе http://face-chat.net/index.php?do=/profile-7731/info

    RépondreSupprimer
  17. My spouse and Ι ѕtumblеԁ oveг here by a diffeгеnt ρage and
    thought I mаy as well cheсk things οut.
    Ι like whаt I ѕee so now i'm following you. Look forward to going over your web page again.

    My website; please click the following webpage
    Also see my page - click through the up coming webpage

    RépondreSupprimer
  18. Аttractive еlement оf сontеnt.
    I just stumbled upon your website and іn accession capіtаl to
    say that I get in fact lοved account your ωeblog
    posts. Any way ӏ'll be subscribing for your feeds or even I achievement you get entry to consistently rapidly.

    Here is my weblog ... Love.Zukto.Com

    RépondreSupprimer
  19. ӏf you wish foг to imρrove your fаmiliarity ѕimply κeep vіsitіng thiѕ site anԁ be updаted with thе nеwest
    gossip poѕted here.

    Feel free to visіt my ωeb site; www.patnacoaching.org

    RépondreSupprimer