mercredi 8 décembre 2010

Sur la trace de Dacia du SMR (Serviciul Maritim Romàn)


En haut, publicité pour le service maritime de l'État roumain (avec Imparatul Traian ou Dacia longeant la côte); En bas, Dacia à quai à Constanta, sur la mer noire.
Suite à notre article d'hier sur les Paquebots roumains construits à Saint-Nazaire en 1906-1907, nous avons retrouvé la trace de l'un des trois après la Première Guerre mondiale et son retour en Roumanie. En effet, Dacia a de nouveau servi dans la Seconde, comme poseur de mine cette fois. (source: le site roumain WorldWar2)


Sur le pont du SMR Dacia
en opération le 5 novembre 1942
Après la Révolution bolchévique de 1917, Dacia reste à, Sébastopol où il est capturé par les Allemands. Rendu à la Roumanie, le paquebot reprend son service sur les lignes orientales (Costanta-Istanbul-Le Pirée-Alexandrie) jusqu'en 1927 quand il subit un incendie qui l'immobilise pour de longues réparations. En 1930, il reprend du service deux fois par mois, ajoutant deux escales (Haïfa et Beirout) à son itinéraire habituel. Après l'entrée de la Roumanie dans la guerre aux côtés des forces de l'axe, Il est transformé de nouveau en croiseur auxiliaire poseur de mines en 1941 et équipé de trois canons de 105mm et de deux 20mm. Il pouvait transporter 200 mines. En octobre 1941, en compagnie de NMS Amiral Murgescu (ex-NMS Regele Carol I), il entame la première de ses campagnes de pose de barrages de mines en mer Noire qui furent un grand obstacle au déplacement de la flotte soviétique qui y perdit de nombreux sous-marins. il continua ainsi jusqu'à septembre 1943. A cette date, proche du revirement de la guerre, Dacia utilise principalement sa puissance de feu anti-aérienne à la défense du port stratégique de Constanta.
La dernière mission du NMS Dacia eut lieu les 11 et 12 mai 1944, pendant l'évacuation des derniers éléments des forces de l'Axe encore encerclés à Sebastopol, au Cap Kerson. Le croiseur auxiliaire était commandé par le lieutenant Dumitru "Japonica" Niculescu. Accompagné par le poseur de mines NMS Amiral Murgescu et le destroyer NMS Regina Maria, il parvint à destination vers 21 heures. A cause de sa taille, Dacia resta au large, les soldats lui étant amenés par quatre embarcations allemandes (de grandes barges de débarquement appelées MFP pour Marinefährprahm). Durant ce transfert, les Soviétiques lancèrent une attaque sur les navires mais n'empêchèrent pas l'embarquement de 1200 soldats et le départ pour Constanta. Le 12 mai, au lever du soleil, Dacia reçut les coups de plusieurs vagues d'avions torpilleurs soviétiques qui endommagèrent son gouvernail. stoppé, on procéda aux réparations sous la protection du NMS Regina Maria puis parvint à regagner son port d'attache. Dacia fut de nouveau endommagé pendant les raids sur Constanta d'août 1944 et quand la Roumanie rejoignit les Alliés, il fut confisqué par la flotte de Chernomorsky. Il sombra peu après, le 10 octobre, près de la côte du Caucase après – ironie du sort – avoir heurté une mine qu'il avait peut-être posé!
Dacia:  Déplacement 4515t, longueur 108,26m, largeur 12,75m, vitesse de croisière 15 nouds (max 18)

SMR Dacia
The passenger ship Dacia was built at Saint Nazaire, in France, and entered the fleet of Serviciului Maritim Roman (SMR) in 1907. Its first cruise was between Constanta-Istanbul-Piraeus-Alexandria and served this "oriental line" during almost its entire life.
In 1916, when Romania a entered WWI, Dacia and the other passenger ships were put at the disposal of the Imperial Russian Navy, which turned them into auxiliary cruisers. It was equipped with four 101 mm naval guns and two 75 mm AA guns, as well as two seaplanes. The ship retained its civilian crew, but it also had onboard a Russian military crew. An officer of the Imperial Navy held the command. In 1917 it took part in the raid of the Ottoman port Ordii in the Caucasus. After the Bolshevik Revolution, the ship remained at Sevastopol, where it was captured in 1918 by German troops. It was then returned to the Romanian authorities following the Buftea Peace Treaty (March 1918) with the Central Powers.
After the war it resumed the trips on the "oriental line", until 1927, when, it caught fire and had to undergo repairs. From 1930 it returned to the Constanta-Istanbul-Piraeus-Beirut-Haifa-Alexandria line, making the trip twice a month until WWII started in 1939.
In 1941 it was requisitioned and transformed into an auxiliary mine-laying ship. It was equipped with three 105 mm naval and AA guns, two 20mm guns and a mine launching installation, which could carry 200 mines.
Dacia entered service in her new form in October 1941, participating together with the NMS Amiral Murgescu si NMS Regele Carol I (which was lost soon after that) mine laying ships in Operation Varna. Seven mine barrages were launched between 8-21 October 1941, creating a continuous anti-submarine protection line between Mangalia and Burgas. These barrages were later the cause of the sinking of several Soviet submarines. S-34 was lost in November 1941 in the Burgas Bay and Sc-204 hit a mine near Varna in December. One year later, In December 1942, L-24 entered the S-15 barrage near Cape Kaliakra and sank.
The ship then took part in the creation of most of the Axis mine barrages in the Black Sea. In 26-28 March 1942 period, together with NMS Amiral Murgescu and a sizeable escort it strengthened the barrages laid in 1941 between Midia and Tuzla. In the last day of the operation, the Romanian ships were attacked by a formation of VVS-ChF DB-3Fs near Gura Portitei. Several bombs fell near it and the ship suffered some damage. Dacia was repaired and on 14 and 15 May it took part in the launching of mine barrages north of Sulina, from Bugaz to the Dniester Liman. Between 24-27 June 1942, together with NMS Amiral Murgescu, as always, it installed two barrages at Odessa, raising the total to 21 to that date. In November 1942 and then in January, April and September 1943 it strengthened the barrages north of Sulina and in the Constanta area, these being its last mine laying missions. Two Soviet submarines were confirmed sunk by the barrages put up by the Dacia and Amiral Murgescu between 1942 and 1943: M-33 and M-60 both near Odessa.
The powerful artillery mounted onboard contributed to the AA defense of the Constanta harbor, which was the target of many Soviet aerial raids during the war. Probably the most daring of them all was the one made by 5 torpedo bombers from 34 MTAP, 3 of which were lost. The 20 mm guns on the Dacia, under the command of ensign Emil Nicolau, were the first to open fire and shot down one of the airplanes, which fell in the Steaua Romana depot, hitting a fuel tank.
The last war mission of NMS Dacia was on 11 and 12 May 1944, during the evacuation of the last elements holding out near Sevastopol at Cape Kerson. The ship was under the command of lt. commander Dumitru "Japonica" Niculescu. It reached the destination around 21 hours together with the NMS Amiral Murgescu mine laying ship and the NMS Regina Maria destroyer. Because of its size, Dacia remained further out at sea and the soldiers were being brought to it by four German MFPs. While the transfer took place, Soviet aircraft launched flares and then attacked. Several bombs fell close to the ship and the splinters wounded Barbu Radian, a merchant marine officer, who died the following day in a hospital in Constanta. At 01 hours captain Vasile Panaitescu, the first officer, was also wounded. A bomb fell at stern on a pile of rope, which reduced the effect of the explosion. However, the splinters killed two sailors and wounded another 21. At 0130 hours a malfunction occurred at the engines and the ship was immobilized for 20 minutes. Around 02 hours, there were already 1,200 people onboard, so it slowly started its trip back to Constanta. After sunrise on 12 May, Dacia was attacked by three waves of Soviet torpedo bombers, but which were scattered from distance by the 105 mm guns and all missed. At 0853 the rudder was damaged following the nearby explosion of a bomb and had to stop for repairs at sea, under the protection of the NMS Regina Maria destroyer. At 0932 hours it resumed the journey and around 1600 hours it had reached Constanta. 25 of the German soldiers onboard were killed during the Soviet air attacks.
Dacia was damaged in port during the Soviet air raids in August 1944 and after Romania quit the Axis and joined the Allies, it was confiscated by the Chernomorsky Flot. It sank soon afterwards, on 10 October, near the Caucasus coast after it hit a mine.
Specifications: Displacement 4,515 t - Length 108.26 m Width 12.75 m - Cruising speed 15 Kn Maximum speed 18 Kn - Artillery 3x105 mm, 2x20 mm Mines 200.

SMR Dacia
Pasagerul Dacia a fost construit la Saint Nazaire, in Franta, si a intrat in compunerea flotei Serviciului Maritim Roman (SMR) in 1907. Prima croaziera a fost intre Constanta-Istanbul-Pireu-Alexandria si a servit aceasta "linie orientala" aproape tot timpul vietii sale… (source: site roumain WorldWar2)