lundi 27 septembre 2010

MSS John Biscoe à Port Stanley (îles Malouines)

MSS John Biscoe à Port Stanley (îles Malouines)
Construit en mai 1943 aux chantiers de l'American Car and Foundry Co. de Wilmington (Delaware) sous le nom de Satinwood (YN-89), ce poseur de filets anti-sous-marin de la classe Ailanthus a été transféré à la Royal Navy en location-vente en août 1944. Il prit alors le nom de HMS Pretext (Z284) puis fut rendu à l'US Navy en novembre 1945. Il est cédé en 1947 et devient navire de recherche scientifique pour le gouvernement des îles Malouines sous le nom de RSS John Biscoe (port d'attache : Port Stanley) avant de reprendre le nom de RRS Pretext quand un nouveau navire est lancé sous le même nom*. Il est racheté par la Royal New Zealand Navy et renommé HMNZS Endeavour et sert de soutien aux opérations antarctiques de la Royal New Zealand Navy pendant cinq campagnes. C'était le troisième bateau de la RNZN à porter ce nom. Il est de nouveau vendu en 1962 et renommé Arctic Endeavour pour des recherches dans l'hémisphère Nord. Il sombre au large de Terre-neuve en novembre 1982.

* RRS John Biscoe II, construit par Fleming & Ferguson de Paisley, a servi de navire de soutien et de recherche pour la British Antarctic Survey de 1956 à 1991. (voir caractéristiques en anglais ci-dessous). Il est remplacé par le RRS James Clark Ross. Devenu turc, il est renommé Fayza Express. Il est ferraillé en mars 2004.


Displacement: 1,190 long tons (1,210 t) (full) Length: 194 ft 6 in (59.28 m) Beam: 37 ft (11 m) Draught: 13 ft 6 in (4.11 m) Propulsion: diesel electric, 2,500 horsepower (1,900 kW) Speed: 13 knots (24 km/h)
The ship was built in the United States in 1944 as
Satinwood (YN-89) as a net tender of the Ailanthus class (but later redesignated as AN-76, a net layer) and transferred to the Royal Navy under Lend-Lease in August 1944. Commissioned as HMS Pretext (Z284), she served the United Kingdom until she was returned to United States Navy custody in November 1945. Commissioned in 1947, she served as a research vessel for the government of the Falkland Islands under the name RRS John Biscoe (Homeport: Stanley) and as RRS Pretext when another ship was assigned the John Biscoe name*. She was purchased by the Royal New Zealand Navy, renamed HMNZS Endeavour (first of three ships in the Royal New Zealand Navy to bear that name), and employed in five support missions to Antarctica. Sold again in 1962, the ship-renamed Arctic Endeavour for sealing work in the northern hemisphere-foundered off the coast of Canada in November 1982.

*The RRS John Biscoe was a supply and research vessel used by the British Antarctic Survey between 1956 and 1991. Builder: Fleming & Ferguson, Paisley - Displacement: 1554 grt - Length: 220 ft (67 m) Beam: 40 ft (12 m) Draught: 16 ft (4.9 m) - Propulsion: Diesel electric.
John Biscoe II was replaced by RRS James Clark Ross in 1991. After decommissioning, she was sold and eventually scrapped in 2004 at Aliaga, Turkey under the name Fayza Express.

John Biscoe (1794-1843) est un marin anglais explorateur des côtes de l'Antarctique. Il a donné son nom aux îles Biscoe. 

John Biscoe (28 June 1794–1843) was an English mariner and explorer who commanded the first expedition known to have sighted the areas named Enderby Land and Graham Land along the coast of Antarctica. The expedition also found a number of islands in the vicinity of Graham Land, including the Biscoe Islands that were named after him.